OSHA used the requirements for cleaning up military bases, such as Hanford where the A-Bomb was designed, as a base. Along with other organizations such as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), OSHA developed the Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER) standards. These requirements apply to all companies and their workers who are engaged in the clean-up operations of any kind of hazardous waste components.
HAZWOPER sets forth several levels of training for workers based on their area of liability. Some parts of the training may be taken online, but each stage also needs a certain amount of monitored hands-on experience before certification can be completed. The duration of the HAZWOPER Refresher course relies on the physical participation in the clean-up process.